I. Human agency and oversight
AI systems should support individuals in making better, more informed choices in accordance with their goals. They should act as enablers to a flourishing and equitable society by supporting human agency and fundamental rights, and not decrease, limit or misguide human autonomy. The overall wellbeing of the user should be central to the system's functionality.
Human oversight helps ensuring that an AI system does not undermine human autonomy or causes other adverse effects. Depending on the specific AI based system and its application area, the appropriate degrees of control measures, including the adaptability, accuracy and explainability of AI based systems, should be ensured. Oversight may be achieved through governance mechanisms such as ensuring a human in the loop, human on the loop, or human in command approach. It must be ensured that public authorities have the ability to exercise their oversight powers in line with their mandates. All other things being equal, the less oversight a human can exercise over an AI system, the more extensive testing and stricter governance is required.
Mechanisms should be put in place to ensure responsibility and accountability for AI systems and their outcomes, both before and after their implementation. Auditability of AI systems is key in this regard, as the assessment of AI systems by internal and external auditors, and the availability of such evaluation reports, strongly contributes to the trustworthiness of the technology. External auditability should especially be ensured in applications affecting fundamental rights, including safety critical applications.
Potential negative impacts of AI systems should be identified, assessed, documented and minimised. The use of impact assessments facilitates this process. These assessments should be proportionate to the extent of the risks that the AI systems pose. Trade offs between the requirements – which are often unavoidable – should be addressed in a rational and methodological manner, and should be accounted for. Finally, when unjust adverse impact occurs, accessible mechanisms should be foreseen that ensure adequate redress.
4. The Principle of Justice: “Be Fair”
Published by: The European Commission’s High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence in Draft Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI
For the purposes of these Guidelines, the principle of justice imparts that the development, use, and regulation of AI systems must be fair. Developers and implementers need to ensure that individuals and minority groups maintain freedom from bias, stigmatisation and discrimination. Additionally, the positives and negatives resulting from AI should be evenly distributed, avoiding to place vulnerable demographics in a position of greater vulnerability and striving for equal opportunity in terms of access to education, goods, services and technology amongst human beings, without discrimination. Justice also means that AI systems must provide users with effective redress if harm occurs, or effective remedy if data practices are no longer aligned with human beings’ individual or collective preferences. Lastly, the principle of justice also commands those developing or implementing AI to be held to high standards of accountability. Humans might benefit from procedures enabling the benchmarking of AI performance with (ethical) expectations.
7. Principle of ethics
Published by: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan in AI R&D Principles
Developers should respect human dignity and individual autonomy in R&D of AI systems.
It is encouraged that, when developing AI systems that link with the human brain and body, developers pay particularly due consideration to respecting human dignity and individual autonomy, in light of discussions on bioethics, etc.
It is also encouraged that, to the extent possible in light of the characteristics of the technologies to be adopted, developers make efforts to take necessary measures so as not to cause unfair discrimination resulting from prejudice included in the learning data of the AI systems.
It is advisable that developers take precautions to ensure that AI systems do not unduly infringe the value of humanity, based on the International Human Rights Law and the International Humanitarian Law.
Published by: The Public Voice coalition, established by Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) in Universal Guidelines for Artificial Intelligence
New developments in Artificial Intelligence are transforming the world, from science and industry to government administration and finance. The rise of AI decision making also implicates fundamental rights of fairness, accountability, and transparency. Modern data analysis produces significant outcomes that have real life consequences for people in employment, housing, credit, commerce, and criminal sentencing. Many of these techniques are entirely opaque, leaving individuals unaware whether the decisions were accurate, fair, or even about them.
We propose these Universal Guidelines to inform and improve the design and use of AI. The Guidelines are intended to maximize the benefits of AI, to minimize the risk, and to ensure the protection of human rights. These Guidelines should be incorporated into ethical standards, adopted in national law and international agreements, and built into the design of systems. We state clearly that the primary responsibility for AI systems must reside with those institutions that fund, develop, and deploy these systems.