I. Human agency and oversight

AI systems should support individuals in making better, more informed choices in accordance with their goals. They should act as enablers to a flourishing and equitable society by supporting human agency and fundamental rights, and not decrease, limit or misguide human autonomy. The overall wellbeing of the user should be central to the system's functionality. Human oversight helps ensuring that an AI system does not undermine human autonomy or causes other adverse effects. Depending on the specific AI based system and its application area, the appropriate degrees of control measures, including the adaptability, accuracy and explainability of AI based systems, should be ensured. Oversight may be achieved through governance mechanisms such as ensuring a human in the loop, human on the loop, or human in command approach. It must be ensured that public authorities have the ability to exercise their oversight powers in line with their mandates. All other things being equal, the less oversight a human can exercise over an AI system, the more extensive testing and stricter governance is required.
Principle: Key requirements for trustworthy AI, Apr 8, 2019

Published by European Commission

Related Principles

Accountability

Those responsible for the different phases of the AI system lifecycle should be identifiable and accountable for the outcomes of the AI systems, and human oversight of AI systems should be enabled. This principle aims to acknowledge the relevant organisations' and individuals’ responsibility for the outcomes of the AI systems that they design, develop, deploy and operate. The application of legal principles regarding accountability for AI systems is still developing. Mechanisms should be put in place to ensure responsibility and accountability for AI systems and their outcomes. This includes both before and after their design, development, deployment and operation. The organisation and individual accountable for the decision should be identifiable as necessary. They must consider the appropriate level of human control or oversight for the particular AI system or use case. AI systems that have a significant impact on an individual's rights should be accountable to external review, this includes providing timely, accurate, and complete information for the purposes of independent oversight bodies.

Published by Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Australian Government in AI Ethics Principles, Nov 7, 2019

· (1) Human centric

Utilization of AI should not infringe upon fundamental human rights that are guaranteed by the Constitution and international norms. AI should be developed and utilized and implemented in society to expand the abilities of people and to pursue the diverse concepts of happiness of diverse people. In the AI utilized society, it is desirable that we implement appropriate mechanisms of literacy education and promotion of proper uses, so as not to over depend on AI or not to ill manipulate human decisions by exploiting AI. AI can expand human abilities and creativity not only by replacing part of human task but also by assisting human as an advanced instrument. When using AI, people must judge and decide for themselves how to use AI. Appropriate stakeholders involved in the development, provision, and utilization of AI should be responsible for the result of AI utilization, depending on the nature of the issue. In order to avoid creating digital divide and allow all people to reap the benefit of AI regardless of their digital expertise, each stakeholder should take into consideration to user friendliness of the system in the process of AI deployment.

Published by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan in Social Principles of Human-centric AI (Draft), Dec 27, 2018

· 3. The Principle of Autonomy: “Preserve Human Agency”

Autonomy of human beings in the context of AI development means freedom from subordination to, or coercion by, AI systems. Human beings interacting with AI systems must keep full and effective self determination over themselves. If one is a consumer or user of an AI system this entails a right to decide to be subject to direct or indirect AI decision making, a right to knowledge of direct or indirect interaction with AI systems, a right to opt out and a right of withdrawal. Self determination in many instances requires assistance from government or non governmental organizations to ensure that individuals or minorities are afforded similar opportunities as the status quo. Furthermore, to ensure human agency, systems should be in place to ensure responsibility and accountability. It is paramount that AI does not undermine the necessity for human responsibility to ensure the protection of fundamental rights.

Published by The European Commission’s High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence in Draft Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI, Dec 18, 2018

· 4. Governance of AI Autonomy (Human oversight)

The correct approach to assuring properties such as safety, accuracy, adaptability, privacy, explicability, compliance with the rule of law and ethical conformity heavily depends on specific details of the AI system, its area of application, its level of impact on individuals, communities or society and its level of autonomy. The level of autonomy results from the use case and the degree of sophistication needed for a task. All other things being equal, the greater degree of autonomy that is given to an AI system, the more extensive testing and stricter governance is required. It must be ensured that AI systems continue to behave as intended when feedback signals become sparser. Depending on the area of application and or the level of impact on individuals, communities or society of the AI system, different levels or instances of governance (incl. human oversight) will be necessary. This is relevant for a large number of AI applications, and more particularly for the use of AI to suggest or take decisions concerning individuals or communities (algorithmic decision support). Good governance of AI autonomy in this respect includes for instance more or earlier human intervention depending on the level of societal impact of the AI system. This also includes the predicament that a user of an AI system, particularly in a work or decision making environment, is allowed to deviate from a path or decision chosen or recommended by the AI system.

Published by The European Commission’s High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence in Draft Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI, Dec 18, 2018

6. Human Centricity and Well being

a. To aim for an equitable distribution of the benefits of data practices and avoid data practices that disproportionately disadvantage vulnerable groups. b. To aim to create the greatest possible benefit from the use of data and advanced modelling techniques. c. Engage in data practices that encourage the practice of virtues that contribute to human flourishing, human dignity and human autonomy. d. To give weight to the considered judgements of people or communities affected by data practices and to be aligned with the values and ethical principles of the people or communities affected. e. To make decisions that should cause no foreseeable harm to the individual, or should at least minimise such harm (in necessary circumstances, when weighed against the greater good). f. To allow users to maintain control over the data being used, the context such data is being used in and the ability to modify that use and context. g. To ensure that the overall well being of the user should be central to the AI system’s functionality.

Published by Personal Data Protection Commission (PDPC), Singapore in A compilation of existing AI ethical principles (Annex A), Jan 21, 2020