5. The autonomous power to hurt, destroy or deceive human beings should never be vested in artificial intelligence.

There is a significant risk that well intended AI research will be misused in ways which harm people. AI researchers and developers must consider the ethical implications of their work. The Cabinet Office's final Cyber Security & Technology Strategy must explicitly consider the risks of AI with respect to cyber security, and the Government should conduct further research as how to protect data sets from any attempts at data sabotage. The Government and Ofcom must commission research into the possible impact of AI on conventional and social media outlets, and investigate measures which might counteract the use of AI to mislead or distort public opinion as a matter of urgency.
Principle: AI Code, Apr 16, 2018

Published by House of Lords, Select Committee on Artificial Intelligence

Related Principles

· (4) Security

Positive utilization of AI means that many social systems will be automated, and the safety of the systems will be improved. On the other hand, within the scope of today's technologies, it is impossible for AI to respond appropriately to rare events or deliberate attacks. Therefore, there is a new security risk for the use of AI. Society should always be aware of the balance of benefits and risks, and should work to improve social safety and sustainability as a whole. Society must promote broad and deep research and development in AI (from immediate measures to deep understanding), such as the proper evaluation of risks in the utilization of AI and research to reduce risks. Society must also pay attention to risk management, including cybersecurity awareness. Society should always pay attention to sustainability in the use of AI. Society should not, in particular, be uniquely dependent on single AI or a few specified AI.

Published by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan in Social Principles of Human-centric AI (Draft), Dec 27, 2018

· 2. The Principle of Non maleficence: “Do no Harm”

AI systems should not harm human beings. By design, AI systems should protect the dignity, integrity, liberty, privacy, safety, and security of human beings in society and at work. AI systems should not threaten the democratic process, freedom of expression, freedoms of identify, or the possibility to refuse AI services. At the very least, AI systems should not be designed in a way that enhances existing harms or creates new harms for individuals. Harms can be physical, psychological, financial or social. AI specific harms may stem from the treatment of data on individuals (i.e. how it is collected, stored, used, etc.). To avoid harm, data collected and used for training of AI algorithms must be done in a way that avoids discrimination, manipulation, or negative profiling. Of equal importance, AI systems should be developed and implemented in a way that protects societies from ideological polarization and algorithmic determinism. Vulnerable demographics (e.g. children, minorities, disabled persons, elderly persons, or immigrants) should receive greater attention to the prevention of harm, given their unique status in society. Inclusion and diversity are key ingredients for the prevention of harm to ensure suitability of these systems across cultures, genders, ages, life choices, etc. Therefore not only should AI be designed with the impact on various vulnerable demographics in mind but the above mentioned demographics should have a place in the design process (rather through testing, validating, or other). Avoiding harm may also be viewed in terms of harm to the environment and animals, thus the development of environmentally friendly AI may be considered part of the principle of avoiding harm. The Earth’s resources can be valued in and of themselves or as a resource for humans to consume. In either case it is necessary to ensure that the research, development, and use of AI are done with an eye towards environmental awareness.

Published by The European Commission’s High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence in Draft Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI, Dec 18, 2018

1. Artificial intelligence should be developed for the common good and benefit of humanity.

The UK must seek to actively shape AI's development and utilisation, or risk passively acquiescing to its many likely consequences. A shared ethical AI framework is needed to give clarity as to how AI can best be used to benefit individuals and society. By establishing these principles, the UK can lead by example in the international community. We recommend that the Government convene a global summit of governments, academia and industry to establish international norms for the design, development, regulation and deployment of artificial intelligence. The prejudices of the past must not be unwittingly built into automated systems, and such systems must be carefully designed from the beginning, with input from as diverse a group of people as possible.

Published by House of Lords, Select Committee on Artificial Intelligence in AI Code, Apr 16, 2018

7. Principle of ethics

Developers should respect human dignity and individual autonomy in R&D of AI systems. [Comment] It is encouraged that, when developing AI systems that link with the human brain and body, developers pay particularly due consideration to respecting human dignity and individual autonomy, in light of discussions on bioethics, etc. It is also encouraged that, to the extent possible in light of the characteristics of the technologies to be adopted, developers make efforts to take necessary measures so as not to cause unfair discrimination resulting from prejudice included in the learning data of the AI systems. It is advisable that developers take precautions to ensure that AI systems do not unduly infringe the value of humanity, based on the International Human Rights Law and the International Humanitarian Law.

Published by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan in AI R&D Principles, Jul 28, 2017

8 PRUDENCE PRINCIPLE

Every person involved in AI development must exercise caution by anticipating, as far as possible, the adverse consequences of AIS use and by taking the appropriate measures to avoid them. 1) It is necessary to develop mechanisms that consider the potential for the double use — beneficial and harmful —of AI research and AIS development (whether public or private) in order to limit harmful uses. 2) When the misuse of an AIS endangers public health or safety and has a high probability of occurrence, it is prudent to restrict open access and public dissemination to its algorithm. 3) Before being placed on the market and whether they are offered for charge or for free, AIS must meet strict reliability, security, and integrity requirements and be subjected to tests that do not put people’s lives in danger, harm their quality of life, or negatively impact their reputation or psychological integrity. These tests must be open to the relevant public authorities and stakeholders. 4) The development of AIS must preempt the risks of user data misuse and protect the integrity and confidentiality of personal data. 5) The errors and flaws discovered in AIS and SAAD should be publicly shared, on a global scale, by public institutions and businesses in sectors that pose a significant danger to personal integrity and social organization.

Published by University of Montreal in The Montreal Declaration for a Responsible Development of Artificial Intelligence, Dec 4, 2018