b) Security

Security: the impermissibility of the use of artificial intelligence for the purpose of intentionally inflicting harm on individuals and legal entities, as well as the prevention and minimization of the risks of negative consequences of the use of artificial intelligence technologies;
Principle: Basic Principles of the Development and Use of Artificial Intelligence Technologies, Oct 10, 2019

Published by Office of the President of the Russian Federation, Decree of the President of the Russian Federation on the Development of Artificial Intelligence in the Russian Federation

Related Principles

5. The autonomous power to hurt, destroy or deceive human beings should never be vested in artificial intelligence.

There is a significant risk that well intended AI research will be misused in ways which harm people. AI researchers and developers must consider the ethical implications of their work. The Cabinet Office's final Cyber Security & Technology Strategy must explicitly consider the risks of AI with respect to cyber security, and the Government should conduct further research as how to protect data sets from any attempts at data sabotage. The Government and Ofcom must commission research into the possible impact of AI on conventional and social media outlets, and investigate measures which might counteract the use of AI to mislead or distort public opinion as a matter of urgency.

Published by House of Lords, Select Committee on Artificial Intelligence in AI Code, Apr 16, 2018

4. Principle of safety

Developers should take it into consideration that AI systems will not harm the life, body, or property of users or third parties through actuators or other devices. [Comment] AI systems which are supposed to be subject to this principle are such ones that might harm the life, body, or property of users or third parties through actuators or other devices. It is encouraged that developers refer to relevant international standards and pay attention to the followings, with particular consideration of the possibility that outputs or programs might change as a result of learning or other methods of AI systems: ● To make efforts to conduct verification and validation in advance in order to assess and mitigate the risks related to the safety of the AI systems. ● To make efforts to implement measures, throughout the development stage of AI systems to the extent possible in light of the characteristics of the technologies to be adopted, to contribute to the intrinsic safety (reduction of essential risk factors such as kinetic energy of actuators) and the functional safety (mitigation of risks by operation of additional control devices such as automatic braking) when AI systems work with actuators or other devices. And ● To make efforts to explain the designers’ intent of AI systems and the reasons for it to stakeholders such as users, when developing AI systems to be used for making judgments regarding the safety of life, body, or property of users and third parties (for example, such judgments that prioritizes life, body, property to be protected at the time of an accident of a robot equipped with AI).

Published by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan in AI R&D Principles, Jul 28, 2017

5. Principle of security

Developers should pay attention to the security of AI systems. [Comment] In addition to respecting international guidelines on security such as “OECD Guidelines for the Security of Information Systems and Networks,” it is encouraged that developers pay attention to the followings, with consideration of the possibility that AI systems might change their outputs or programs as a result of learning or other methods: ● To pay attention, as necessary, to the reliability (that is, whether the operations are performed as intended and not steered by unauthorized third parties) and robustness (that is, tolerance to physical attacks and accidents) of AI systems, in addition to: (a) confidentiality; (b) integrity; and (c) availability of information that are usually required for ensuring the information security of AI systems. ● To make efforts to conduct verification and validation in advance in order to assess and control the risks related to the security of AI systems. ● To make efforts to take measures to maintain the security to the extent possible in light of the characteristics of the technologies to be adopted throughout the process of the development of AI systems (“security by design”).

Published by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan in AI R&D Principles, Jul 28, 2017

6. Principle of privacy

Developers should take it into consideration that AI systems will not infringe the privacy of users or third parties. [Comment] The privacy referred to in this principle includes spatial privacy (peace of personal life), information privacy (personal data), and secrecy of communications. Developers should consider international guidelines on privacy, such as “OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data,” as well as the followings, with consideration of the possibility that AI systems might change their outputs or programs as a result of learning and other methods: ● To make efforts to evaluate the risks of privacy infringement and conduct privacy impact assessment in advance. ● To make efforts to take necessary measures, to the extent possible in light of the characteristics of the technologies to be adopted throughout the process of development of the AI systems (“privacy by design”), to avoid infringement of privacy at the time of the utilization.

Published by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan in AI R&D Principles, Jul 28, 2017

8 PRUDENCE PRINCIPLE

Every person involved in AI development must exercise caution by anticipating, as far as possible, the adverse consequences of AIS use and by taking the appropriate measures to avoid them. 1) It is necessary to develop mechanisms that consider the potential for the double use — beneficial and harmful —of AI research and AIS development (whether public or private) in order to limit harmful uses. 2) When the misuse of an AIS endangers public health or safety and has a high probability of occurrence, it is prudent to restrict open access and public dissemination to its algorithm. 3) Before being placed on the market and whether they are offered for charge or for free, AIS must meet strict reliability, security, and integrity requirements and be subjected to tests that do not put people’s lives in danger, harm their quality of life, or negatively impact their reputation or psychological integrity. These tests must be open to the relevant public authorities and stakeholders. 4) The development of AIS must preempt the risks of user data misuse and protect the integrity and confidentiality of personal data. 5) The errors and flaws discovered in AIS and SAAD should be publicly shared, on a global scale, by public institutions and businesses in sectors that pose a significant danger to personal integrity and social organization.

Published by University of Montreal in The Montreal Declaration for a Responsible Development of Artificial Intelligence, Dec 4, 2018