In society premised on AI, it is possible to estimate each person’s political position, economic situation, hobbies preferences, etc. with high accuracy from data on the data subject’s personal behavior. This means, when utilizing AI, that more careful treatment of personal data is necessary than simply utilizing personal information. To ensure that people are not suffered disadvantages from unexpected sharing or utilization of personal data through the internet for instance, each stakeholder must handle personal data based on the following principles.
Companies or government should not infringe individual person’s freedom, dignity and equality in utilization of personal data with AI technologies.
AI that uses personal data should have a mechanism that ensures accuracy and legitimacy and enable the person herself himself to be substantially involved in the management of her his privacy data. As a result, when using the AI, people can provide personal data without concerns and effectively benefit from the data they provide.
Personal data must be properly protected according to its importance and sensitivity. Personal data varies from those unjust use of which would be likely to greatly affect rights and benefits of individuals (Typically thought and creed, medical history, criminal record, etc.) to those that are semi public in social life. Taking this into consideration, we have to pay enough attention to the balance between the use and protection of personal data based on the common understanding of society and the cultural background.
For cognitive systems to fulfill their world changing potential, it is vital that people have confidence in their recommendations, judgments and uses. Therefore, the IBM company will make clear:
When and for what purposes AI is being applied in the cognitive solutions we develop and deploy.
The major sources of data and expertise that inform the insights of cognitive solutions, as well as the methods used to train those systems and solutions.
The principle that clients own their own business models and intellectual property and that they can use AI and cognitive systems to enhance the advantages they have built, often through years of experience. We will work with our clients to protect their data and insights, and will encourage our clients, partners and industry colleagues to adopt similar practices.
9. Principle of accountability
Published by: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan in AI R&D Principles
Developers should make efforts to fulfill their accountability to stakeholders, including AI systems’ users.
Developers are expected to fulfill their accountability for AI systems they have developed to gain users’ trust in AI systems.
Specifically, it is encouraged that developers make efforts to provide users with the information that can help their choice and utilization of AI systems. In addition, in order to improve the acceptance of AI systems by the society including users, it is also encouraged that, taking into account the R&D principles (1) to (8) set forth in the Guidelines, developers make efforts: (a) to provide users et al. with both information and explanations about the technical characteristics of the AI systems they have developed; and (b) to gain active involvement of stakeholders (such as their feedback) in such manners as to hear various views through dialogues with diverse stakeholders.
Moreover, it is advisable that developers make efforts to share the information and cooperate with providers et al. who offer services with the AI systems they have developed on their own.
8. Principle of fairness
Published by: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan in Draft AI Utilization Principles
AI service providers, business users, and data providers should take into consideration that individuals will not be discriminated unfairly by the judgments of AI systems or AI services.
[Main points to discuss]
A) Attention to the representativeness of data used for learning or other methods of AI
AI service providers, business users, and data providers may be expected to pay attention to the representativeness of data used for learning or other methods of AI and the social bias inherent in the data so that individuals should not be unfairly discriminated against due to their race, religion, gender, etc. as a result of the judgment of AI.
In light of the characteristics of the technologies to be used and their usage, in what cases and to what extent is attention expected to be paid to the representativeness of data used for learning or other methods and the social bias inherent in the data?
Note: The representativeness of data refers to the fact that data sampled and used do not distort the propensity of the population of data.
B) Attention to unfair discrimination by algorithm
AI service providers and business users may be expected to pay attention to the possibility that individuals may be unfairly discriminated against due to their race, religion, gender, etc. by the algorithm of AI.
C) Human intervention
Regarding the judgment made by AI, AI service providers and business users may be expected to make judgments as to whether to use the judgments of AI, how to use it, or other matters, with consideration of social contexts and reasonable expectations of people in the utilization of AI, so that individuals should not be unfairly discriminated against due to their race, religion, gender, etc.
In light of the characteristics of the technologies to be used and their usage, in what cases and to what extent is human intervention expected?
3 PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND INTIMACY PRINCIPLE
Privacy and intimacy must be protected from AIS intrusion and data acquisition and archiving systems (DAAS).
1) Personal spaces in which people are not subjected to surveillance or digital evaluation must be protected from the intrusion of AIS and data acquisition and archiving systems (DAAS).
2) The intimacy of thoughts and emotions must be strictly protected from AIS and DAAS uses capable of causing harm, especially uses that impose moral judgments on people or their lifestyle choices.
3) People must always have the right to digital disconnection in their private lives, and AIS should explicitly offer the option to disconnect at regular intervals, without encouraging people to stay connected.
4) People must have extensive control over information regarding their preferences. AIS must not create individual preference proﬁles to inﬂuence the behavior of the individuals without their free and informed consent.
5) DAAS must guarantee data conﬁdentiality and personal proﬁle anonymity.
6) Every person must be able to exercise extensive control over their personal data, especially when it comes to its collection, use, and dissemination. Access to AIS and digital services by individuals must not be made conditional on their abandoning control or ownership of their personal data.
7) Individuals should be free to donate their personal data to research organizations in order to contribute to the advancement of knowledge.
8) The integrity of one’s personal identity must be guaranteed. AIS must not be used to imitate or alter a person’s appearance, voice, or other individual characteristics in order to damage one’s reputation or manipulate other people.