4. As part of an overall “ethics by design” approach, artificial intelligence systems should be designed and developed responsibly, by applying the principles of privacy by default and privacy by design, in particular by:

a. implementing technical and organizational measures and procedures – proportional to the type of system that is developed – to ensure that data subjects’ privacy and personal data are respected, both when determining the means of the processing and at the moment of data processing, b. assessing and documenting the expected impacts on individuals and society at the beginning of an artificial intelligence project and for relevant developments during its entire life cycle, and c. identifying specific requirements for ethical and fair use of the systems and for respecting human rights as part of the development and operations of any artificial intelligence system,
Principle: Declaration On Ethics And Data Protection In Artifical Intelligence, Oct 23, 2018

Published by 40th International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners (ICDPPC)

Related Principles

IV. Transparency

The traceability of AI systems should be ensured; it is important to log and document both the decisions made by the systems, as well as the entire process (including a description of data gathering and labelling, and a description of the algorithm used) that yielded the decisions. Linked to this, explainability of the algorithmic decision making process, adapted to the persons involved, should be provided to the extent possible. Ongoing research to develop explainability mechanisms should be pursued. In addition, explanations of the degree to which an AI system influences and shapes the organisational decision making process, design choices of the system, as well as the rationale for deploying it, should be available (hence ensuring not just data and system transparency, but also business model transparency). Finally, it is important to adequately communicate the AI system’s capabilities and limitations to the different stakeholders involved in a manner appropriate to the use case at hand. Moreover, AI systems should be identifiable as such, ensuring that users know they are interacting with an AI system and which persons are responsible for it.

Published by European Commission in Key requirements for trustworthy AI, Apr 8, 2019

3. Artificial intelligence systems transparency and intelligibility should be improved, with the objective of effective implementation, in particular by:

a. investing in public and private scientific research on explainable artificial intelligence, b. promoting transparency, intelligibility and reachability, for instance through the development of innovative ways of communication, taking into account the different levels of transparency and information required for each relevant audience, c. making organizations’ practices more transparent, notably by promoting algorithmic transparency and the auditability of systems, while ensuring meaningfulness of the information provided, and d. guaranteeing the right to informational self determination, notably by ensuring that individuals are always informed appropriately when they are interacting directly with an artificial intelligence system or when they provide personal data to be processed by such systems, e. providing adequate information on the purpose and effects of artificial intelligence systems in order to verify continuous alignment with expectation of individuals and to enable overall human control on such systems.

Published by 40th International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners (ICDPPC) in Declaration On Ethics And Data Protection In Artifical Intelligence, Oct 23, 2018

3. Principle of controllability

Developers should pay attention to the controllability of AI systems. [Comment] In order to assess the risks related to the controllability of AI systems, it is encouraged that developers make efforts to conduct verification and validation in advance. One of the conceivable methods of risk assessment is to conduct experiments in a closed space such as in a laboratory or a sandbox in which security is ensured, at a stage before the practical application in society. In addition, in order to ensure the controllability of AI systems, it is encouraged that developers pay attention to whether the supervision (such as monitoring or warnings) and countermeasures (such as system shutdown, cut off from networks, or repairs) by humans or other trustworthy AI systems are effective, to the extent possible in light of the characteristics of the technologies to be adopted. [Note] Verification and validation are methods for evaluating and controlling risks in advance. Generally, the former is used for confirming formal consistency, while the latter is used for confirming substantial validity. (See, e.g., The Future of Life Institute (FLI), Research Priorities for Robust and Beneficial Artificial Intelligence (2015)). [Note] Examples of what to see in the risk assessment are risks of reward hacking in which AI systems formally achieve the goals assigned but substantially do not meet the developer's intents, and risks that AI systems work in ways that the developers have not intended due to the changes of their outputs and programs in the process of the utilization with their learning, etc. For reward hacking, see, e.g., Dario Amodei, Chris Olah, Jacob Steinhardt, Paul Christiano, John Schulman & Dan Mané, Concrete Problems in AI Safety, arXiv: 1606.06565 [cs.AI] (2016).

Published by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan in AI R&D Principles, Jul 28, 2017

5. Principle of security

Developers should pay attention to the security of AI systems. [Comment] In addition to respecting international guidelines on security such as “OECD Guidelines for the Security of Information Systems and Networks,” it is encouraged that developers pay attention to the followings, with consideration of the possibility that AI systems might change their outputs or programs as a result of learning or other methods: ● To pay attention, as necessary, to the reliability (that is, whether the operations are performed as intended and not steered by unauthorized third parties) and robustness (that is, tolerance to physical attacks and accidents) of AI systems, in addition to: (a) confidentiality; (b) integrity; and (c) availability of information that are usually required for ensuring the information security of AI systems. ● To make efforts to conduct verification and validation in advance in order to assess and control the risks related to the security of AI systems. ● To make efforts to take measures to maintain the security to the extent possible in light of the characteristics of the technologies to be adopted throughout the process of the development of AI systems (“security by design”).

Published by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan in AI R&D Principles, Jul 28, 2017

4. Privacy and security by design

AI systems are fuelled by data, and Telefónica is committed to respecting people’s right to privacy and their personal data. The data used in AI systems can be personal or anonymous aggregated. When processing personal data, according to Telefónica’s privacy policy, we will at all times comply with the principles of lawfulness, fairness and transparency, data minimisation, accuracy, storage limitation, integrity and confidentiality. When using anonymized and or aggregated data, we will use the principles set out in this document. In order to ensure compliance with our Privacy Policy we use a Privacy by Design methodology. When building AI systems, as with other systems, we follow Telefónica’s Security by Design approach. We apply, according to Telefónica’s privacy policy, in all of the processing cycle phases, the technical and organizational measures required to guarantee a level of security adequate to the risk to which the personal information may be exposed and, in any case, in accordance with the security measures established in the law in force in each of the countries and or regions in which we operate.

Published by Telefónica in AI Principles of Telefónica, Oct 30, 2018