7. Principles of human dignity and individual autonomy

Users should respect human dignity and individual autonomy in the utilization of AI systems or AI services. [Main points to discuss] A) Respect for human dignity and individual autonomy With consideration of social contexts in the utilization of AI, users may be expected to respect human dignity and individual autonomy. B) Attention to the manipulation of human decision making, emotions, etc. by AI Users may be expected to pay attention to the risks of the manipulation of human decision making and emotions by AI and risks of excessive dependence on AI. It is crucial to consider who takes what measures against such risks. C) Reference to the discussion of bioethics, etc. in the case of linking AI systems with the human brain and body When linking AI with the human brain and body, users may be required to particularly take into consideration that human dignity and individual autonomy will not be violated, in light of discussions on bioethics, etc.
Principle: Draft AI Utilization Principles, Jul 17, 2018

Published by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan

Related Principles

· (1) Human centric

Utilization of AI should not infringe upon fundamental human rights that are guaranteed by the Constitution and international norms. AI should be developed and utilized and implemented in society to expand the abilities of people and to pursue the diverse concepts of happiness of diverse people. In the AI utilized society, it is desirable that we implement appropriate mechanisms of literacy education and promotion of proper uses, so as not to over depend on AI or not to ill manipulate human decisions by exploiting AI. AI can expand human abilities and creativity not only by replacing part of human task but also by assisting human as an advanced instrument. When using AI, people must judge and decide for themselves how to use AI. Appropriate stakeholders involved in the development, provision, and utilization of AI should be responsible for the result of AI utilization, depending on the nature of the issue. In order to avoid creating digital divide and allow all people to reap the benefit of AI regardless of their digital expertise, each stakeholder should take into consideration to user friendliness of the system in the process of AI deployment.

Published by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan in Social Principles of Human-centric AI (Draft), Dec 27, 2018

I. Human agency and oversight

AI systems should support individuals in making better, more informed choices in accordance with their goals. They should act as enablers to a flourishing and equitable society by supporting human agency and fundamental rights, and not decrease, limit or misguide human autonomy. The overall wellbeing of the user should be central to the system's functionality. Human oversight helps ensuring that an AI system does not undermine human autonomy or causes other adverse effects. Depending on the specific AI based system and its application area, the appropriate degrees of control measures, including the adaptability, accuracy and explainability of AI based systems, should be ensured. Oversight may be achieved through governance mechanisms such as ensuring a human in the loop, human on the loop, or human in command approach. It must be ensured that public authorities have the ability to exercise their oversight powers in line with their mandates. All other things being equal, the less oversight a human can exercise over an AI system, the more extensive testing and stricter governance is required.

Published by European Commission in Key requirements for trustworthy AI, Apr 8, 2019

7. Principle of ethics

Developers should respect human dignity and individual autonomy in R&D of AI systems. [Comment] It is encouraged that, when developing AI systems that link with the human brain and body, developers pay particularly due consideration to respecting human dignity and individual autonomy, in light of discussions on bioethics, etc. It is also encouraged that, to the extent possible in light of the characteristics of the technologies to be adopted, developers make efforts to take necessary measures so as not to cause unfair discrimination resulting from prejudice included in the learning data of the AI systems. It is advisable that developers take precautions to ensure that AI systems do not unduly infringe the value of humanity, based on the International Human Rights Law and the International Humanitarian Law.

Published by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan in AI R&D Principles, Jul 28, 2017

2. Autonomy

[QUESTIONS] How can AI contribute to greater autonomy for human beings? Must we fight against the phenomenon of attention seeking which has accompanied advances in AI? Should we be worried that humans prefer the company of AI to that of other humans or animals? Can someone give informed consent when faced with increasingly complex autonomous technologies? Must we limit the autonomy of intelligent computer systems? Should a human always make the final decision? [PRINCIPLES] ​The development of AI should promote the autonomy of all human beings and control, in a responsible way, the autonomy of computer systems.

Published by University of Montreal, Forum on the Socially Responsible Development of AI in The Montreal Declaration for a Responsible Development of Artificial Intelligence, Nov 3, 2017

· 1. THE MAIN PRIORITY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF AI TECHNOLOGIES IS PROTECTING THE INTERESTS AND RIGHTS OF HUMAN BEINGS COLLECTIVELY AND AS INDIVIDUALS

1.1. Human centered and humanistic approach. In the development of AI technologies, the rights and freedoms of the individual should be given the greatest value. AI technologies developed by AI Actors should promote or not hinder the realization of humans’ capabilities to achieve harmony in social, economic and spiritual spheres, as well as in the highest self fulfillment of human beings. They should take into account key values such as the preservation and development of human cognitive abilities and creative potential; the preservation of moral, spiritual and cultural values; the promotion of cultural and linguistic diversity and identity; and the preservation of traditions and the foundations of nations, peoples and ethnic and social groups. A human centered and humanistic approach is the basic ethical principle and central criterion for assessing the ethical behavior of AI Actors, which are listed in the section 2 of this Code. 1.2. Respect for human autonomy and freedom of will. AI Actors should take all necessary measures to preserve the autonomy and free will of a human‘s decision making ability, the right to choose, and, in general, the intellectual abilities of a human as an intrinsic value and a system forming factor of modern civilization. AI Actors should, during AIS creation, assess the possible negative consequences for the development of human cognitive abilities and prevent the development of AIS that purposefully cause such consequences. 1.3. Compliance with the law. AI Actors must know and comply with the provisions of the legislation of the Russian Federation in all areas of their activities and at all stages of the creation, development and use of AI technologies, including in matters of the legal responsibility of AI Actors. 1.4. Non discrimination. To ensure fairness and non discrimination, AI Actors should take measures to verify that the algorithms, datasets and processing methods for machine learning that are used to group and or classify data concerning individuals or groups do not intentionally discriminate. AI Actors are encouraged to create and apply methods and software solutions that identify and prevent discrimination based on race, nationality, gender, political views, religious beliefs, age, social and economic status, or information about private life. (At the same time, cannot be considered as discrimination rules, which are explicitly declared by an AI Actor for functioning or the application of AIS for the different groups of users, with such factors taken into account for segmentation) 1.5. Assessment of risks and humanitarian impact. AI Actors are encouraged to assess the potential risks of using an AIS, including the social consequences for individuals, society and the state, as well as the humanitarian impact of the AIS on human rights and freedoms at different stages, including during the formation and use of datasets. AI Actors should also carry out long term monitoring of the manifestations of such risks and take into account the complexity of the behavior of AIS during risk assessment, including the relationship and the interdependence of processes in the AIS’s life cycle. For critical applications of the AIS, in special cases, it is encouraged that a risk assessment be conducted through the involvement of a neutral third party or authorized official body when to do so would not harm the performance and information security of the AIS and would ensure the protection of the intellectual property and trade secrets of the developer.

Published by AI Alliance Russia in Artificial Intelligence Code of Ethics, Oct 26, 2021