(Preamble)

The Code of Ethics in the Field of Artificial Intelligence (hereinafter referred to as the Code) establishes the general ethical principles and standards of conduct that should be followed by participants in relation to the field of artificial intelligence (hereinafter referred to as AI Actors) in their activities, as well as the mechanisms for the implementation of the provisions of this Code. The Code applies to relationships related to the ethical aspects of the creation (design, construction, piloting), implementation and use of AI technologies at all stages that are currently not regulated by the legislation of the Russian Federation and or by acts of technical regulation. The recommendations of this Code are designed for artificial intelligence systems (hereinafter referred to as AIS) used exclusively for civil (not military) purposes. The provisions of the Code can be expanded and or specified for individual groups of AI Actors in industry specific or local documents on ethics in the field of AI, considering the development of technologies, the specifics of the tasks being solved, the class and purpose of the AIS and the level of possible risks, as well as the specific context and environment in which the AIS are being used.
Principle: Artificial Intelligence Code of Ethics, Oct 26, 2021

Published by AI Alliance Russia

Related Principles

3. Principle of controllability

Developers should pay attention to the controllability of AI systems. [Comment] In order to assess the risks related to the controllability of AI systems, it is encouraged that developers make efforts to conduct verification and validation in advance. One of the conceivable methods of risk assessment is to conduct experiments in a closed space such as in a laboratory or a sandbox in which security is ensured, at a stage before the practical application in society. In addition, in order to ensure the controllability of AI systems, it is encouraged that developers pay attention to whether the supervision (such as monitoring or warnings) and countermeasures (such as system shutdown, cut off from networks, or repairs) by humans or other trustworthy AI systems are effective, to the extent possible in light of the characteristics of the technologies to be adopted. [Note] Verification and validation are methods for evaluating and controlling risks in advance. Generally, the former is used for confirming formal consistency, while the latter is used for confirming substantial validity. (See, e.g., The Future of Life Institute (FLI), Research Priorities for Robust and Beneficial Artificial Intelligence (2015)). [Note] Examples of what to see in the risk assessment are risks of reward hacking in which AI systems formally achieve the goals assigned but substantially do not meet the developer's intents, and risks that AI systems work in ways that the developers have not intended due to the changes of their outputs and programs in the process of the utilization with their learning, etc. For reward hacking, see, e.g., Dario Amodei, Chris Olah, Jacob Steinhardt, Paul Christiano, John Schulman & Dan Mané, Concrete Problems in AI Safety, arXiv: 1606.06565 [cs.AI] (2016).

Published by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan in AI R&D Principles, Jul 28, 2017

· 1. THE MAIN PRIORITY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF AI TECHNOLOGIES IS PROTECTING THE INTERESTS AND RIGHTS OF HUMAN BEINGS COLLECTIVELY AND AS INDIVIDUALS

1.1. Human centered and humanistic approach. In the development of AI technologies, the rights and freedoms of the individual should be given the greatest value. AI technologies developed by AI Actors should promote or not hinder the realization of humans’ capabilities to achieve harmony in social, economic and spiritual spheres, as well as in the highest self fulfillment of human beings. They should take into account key values such as the preservation and development of human cognitive abilities and creative potential; the preservation of moral, spiritual and cultural values; the promotion of cultural and linguistic diversity and identity; and the preservation of traditions and the foundations of nations, peoples and ethnic and social groups. A human centered and humanistic approach is the basic ethical principle and central criterion for assessing the ethical behavior of AI Actors, which are listed in the section 2 of this Code. 1.2. Respect for human autonomy and freedom of will. AI Actors should take all necessary measures to preserve the autonomy and free will of a human‘s decision making ability, the right to choose, and, in general, the intellectual abilities of a human as an intrinsic value and a system forming factor of modern civilization. AI Actors should, during AIS creation, assess the possible negative consequences for the development of human cognitive abilities and prevent the development of AIS that purposefully cause such consequences. 1.3. Compliance with the law. AI Actors must know and comply with the provisions of the legislation of the Russian Federation in all areas of their activities and at all stages of the creation, development and use of AI technologies, including in matters of the legal responsibility of AI Actors. 1.4. Non discrimination. To ensure fairness and non discrimination, AI Actors should take measures to verify that the algorithms, datasets and processing methods for machine learning that are used to group and or classify data concerning individuals or groups do not intentionally discriminate. AI Actors are encouraged to create and apply methods and software solutions that identify and prevent discrimination based on race, nationality, gender, political views, religious beliefs, age, social and economic status, or information about private life. (At the same time, cannot be considered as discrimination rules, which are explicitly declared by an AI Actor for functioning or the application of AIS for the different groups of users, with such factors taken into account for segmentation) 1.5. Assessment of risks and humanitarian impact. AI Actors are encouraged to assess the potential risks of using an AIS, including the social consequences for individuals, society and the state, as well as the humanitarian impact of the AIS on human rights and freedoms at different stages, including during the formation and use of datasets. AI Actors should also carry out long term monitoring of the manifestations of such risks and take into account the complexity of the behavior of AIS during risk assessment, including the relationship and the interdependence of processes in the AIS’s life cycle. For critical applications of the AIS, in special cases, it is encouraged that a risk assessment be conducted through the involvement of a neutral third party or authorized official body when to do so would not harm the performance and information security of the AIS and would ensure the protection of the intellectual property and trade secrets of the developer.

Published by AI Alliance Russia in Artificial Intelligence Code of Ethics, Oct 26, 2021

· 3. HUMANS ARE ALWAYS RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE APPLICATION OF AN AIS

3.1. Supervision. AI Actors should provide comprehensive human supervision of any AIS to the extent and manner depending on the purpose of the AIS, including, for example, recording significant human decisions at all stages of the AIS life cycle or making provisions for the registration of the work of the AIS. They should also ensure the transparency of AIS use, including the possibility of cancellation by a person and (or) the prevention of making socially and legally significant decisions and actions by the AIS at any stage in its life cycle, where reasonably applicable. 3.2. Responsibility. AI Actors should not allow the transfer of rights of responsible moral choice to the AIS or delegate responsibility for the consequences of the AIS’s decision making. A person (an individual or legal entity recognized as the subject of responsibility in accordance with the legislation in force of the Russian Federation) must always be responsible for the consequences of the work of the AI Actors are encouraged to take all measures to determine the responsibilities of specific participants in the life cycle of the AIS, taking into account each participant’s role and the specifics of each stage.

Published by AI Alliance Russia in Artificial Intelligence Code of Ethics, Oct 26, 2021

· 1. Foundation of the code action

1.1. Legal basis of the Code. The Code takes into account the legislation of the Russian Federation,the Constitution of the Russian Federation and other regulatory legal acts and strategic planning documents. These include the National Strategy for the Development of Artificial Intelligence, the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation and the Concept for the Regulation of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics. The Code also considers international treaties and agreements ratified by the Russian Federation applicable to issues ensuring the rights and freedoms of citizens in the context of the use of information technologies. 1.2. Terminology. Terms and definitions in this Code are defined in accordance with applicable regulatory legal acts, strategic planning documents and technical regulation in the field of AI. 1.3. AI Actors. For the purposes of this Code, AI Actors is defined as persons, including foreign ones, participating in the life cycle of an AIS during its implementation in the territory of the Russian Federation or in relation to persons who are in the territory of the Russian Federation, including those involved in the provision of goods and services. Such persons include, but are not limited to, the following: developers who create, train, or test AI models systems and develop or implement such models systems, software and or hardware systems and take responsibility for their design; customers (individuals or organizations) receiving a product; or a service; data providers and persons involved in the formation of datasets for their use in AISs; experts who measure and or evaluate the parameters of the developed models systems; manufacturers engaged in the production of AIS; AIS operators who legally own the relevant systems, use them for their intended purpose and directly implement the solution to the problems that arise from using AIS; operators (individuals or organizations) carrying out the work of the AIS; persons with a regulatory impact in the field of AI, including the developers of regulatory and technical documents, manuals, various regulations, requirements, and standards in the field of AI; and other persons whose actions can affect the results of the actions of an AIS or persons who make decisions on the use of AIS.

Published by AI Alliance Russia in Artificial Intelligence Code of Ethics, Oct 26, 2021

· 2. MECHANISM OF ACCESSION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CODE

2.1 Voluntary Accession. Joining the Code is voluntary. By joining the Code, AI Actors agree to follow its recommendations. Joining and following the provisions of this Code may be taken into account when providing support measures or in interactions with an AI Actor or between AI Actors. 2.2 Ethics officers and or ethics commissions. To ensure the implementation of the provisions of this Code and the current legal norms when creating, applying and using an AIS, AI Actors appoint officers on AI ethics who are responsible for the implementation of the Code and who act as contacts for AI Actors on ethical issues involving AI. These officers can create collegial industry bodies in the form of internal ethics commissions in the field of AI to consider the most relevant or controversial issues in the field of AI ethics. AI Actors are encouraged to identify an AI ethics officer whenever possible upon accession to this Code or within two months from the date of accession to the Code. 2.3. Commission for the Implementation of the National Code in AI Ethics. In order to implement the Code, a commission for the implementation of the Code in the field of AI ethics (hereinafter referred to as the Commission) being established. The commission may have working bodies and groups consisting of representatives of the business community, science, government agencies and other stakeholders. The Commission considers the applications of AI Actors wishing to join the Code and follow its provisions; it also maintains a register of Code members. The activities of the Commission and the conduct of its secretariat are carried out by the Alliance for Artificial Intelligence association with the participation of other interested organizations. 2.4. Register of Code participants. To accede to this Code, the AI Actor sends a corresponding application to the Commission. The register of AI Actors who have joined the Code is maintained on a public website portal. 2.5. Development of methods and guidelines. For the implementation of the Code, it is recommended to develop methods, guidelines, checklists and other methodological materials to ensure the most effective observance of the provisions of the Code by the AI Actors 2.6. Code of Practice. For the timely exchange of best practices, the useful and safe application of AIS built on the basic principles of this Code, increasing the transparency of developers' activities, and maintaining healthy competition in the AIS market, AI Actors may create a set of best and or worst practices for solving emerging ethical issues in the AI life cycle, selected according to the criteria established by the professional community. Public access to this code of practice should be provided.

Published by AI Alliance Russia in Artificial Intelligence Code of Ethics, Oct 26, 2021